Age dating of environmental organic residues

Canopy - the layer of covering in a forest made up of tree crowns, from the top of the tallest tree in a forest or the top of the shortest tree in a forest this is known as the canopy.

The canopy can be described in three layers, upper, middle and lower Carrying Capacity - the maximum number of individuals of a wildlife species an area can support during the most unfavorable time of the year Chain - a unit of measure used by foresters and surveyors that equals 66 feet Chambered Pith- a pith that is divided into empty chambers by cross partitions Channel - a natural stream that conveys water; or a ditch excavated for the flow of water Check Dam - a small dam constructed in a gully or other small watercourse to decrease the stream flow velocity, minimize channel scour and promote deposition of sediment Chip-n-saw - a mill process that allows small diameter trees 7 to 10 inches, DBH, to be converted into lumber and into chips for pulp and paper manufacturing Chlorophyll - the green pigment of plant cells, which is the receptor of light energy in photosynthesis Clearcut - a method of harvest or a silvicultural system, where all the trees are removed and involves the replanting or natural regeneration of species leading to the establishment of an even-aged stand.

For most scientists all of this seems so obvious that it is difficult to question.

Since the geologic column represents millions of years of Earth's history, then obviously the fossils in each of the layers must be the same age as the layer in which they are found.Since each of these layers seems so specialized it is easy to conclude that one type of creature gave rise to the next type of creature over the course of whatever time it took to form the various layers between them.Radiometric dating and many other techniques are used to support the idea that this transformation process took tens and hundreds of millions of years.Residue analyses on stone artefacts have contributed to resolving functional questions in stone tool research.Although identifying the function of tools through the analysis of their micro-residues is possible, the establishment of a sound numerical chronology for stone tools lacking a clear stratigraphic sequence, such as surface scatters, remains a challenge.